A study at Ohio State University showed that a 50-pound child would have to eat more than a pound-and-a-quarter of Poinsettia leaves (500 to 600 leaves) to have any side effects. In the wild, they grow as … Prune back the plants hard in April, to about 10cm (4in), and keep at a temperature of 13°C; In early May, repot them, growing them in a light, cool place over summer. Your other option is to grow poinsettias from seeds. Poinsettias can grow to be the size of a small tree, reaching 16 feet in height and 6 … If it gets too hot and dry, their growth might slow. It is estimated that women account for 80% of Poinsettia sales. In Spain the Poinsettia has a different holiday attribution. The job is done! Poinsettia is what is a called a short day photoperiod crop, which means that it naturally flowers when the nights become longer than the days. How to grow poinsettias in a garden. Do note that, once the central leaves start to take on their Christmas color, even a bit, no further short-day treatment is required. Since the “flowers” (actually brightly colored leaves called bracts) easily last 3 months, your poinsettia can then be the star of your holiday season display for a long, long time! Remember that poinsettias are tropical plants and must be protected from frosts and freezing weather. Poinsett was a botanist, physician and the first United States Ambassador to Mexico. What is known as the Christmas flower is native to Mexico. Water your poinsettia when the surface of the soil is dry to the touch. Poinsettias have also been called the lobster flower and the flame-leaf flower, due to the red color. Poinsettias are native to Mexico. It is known there as "Flor de Pascua", meaning "Easter flower". Poinsettias are absolutely everywhere during the holidays, and for good reason! Often seen as a disposable plant, they are hardy and can be encouraged to flower again and even grown on through winter. The Paul Ecke Ranch in California grows over 70% of all Poinsettias purchased in the United States and about 50% of the world-wide sales of Poinsettias. by Sarah Laskow December 21, 2017. A holiday gift of a poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is almost a certainty. On the other hand, once Poinsettias finish that process, the plants require abundant light during the day for the brightest color. Prepare the planting area well by digging in Yates Dynamic Lifter Soil Improver & Plant Fertiliser. Location. Poinsettias are the best selling potted plant in the United States and Canada. If your poinsettia is growing in a pot when you get it, keep it indoors in a sunny room where the temperatures range from 65 to 80 degrees F. during the day, and no lower than about 60 degrees F. at night. The Aztecs used the Poinsettia bracts to make a reddish purple dye for fabrics, and used the sap medicinally to control fevers. Gardeners looking for a bright splash of color over the winter months often raise poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Poinsettias grow best in moist, well-drained, fertile soils. Your plant will continue its maturation until full bloom is achieved. In Nahuatl , the language of the Aztecs, the Poinsettia was called, Today the plant is known in Mexico and Guatemala as ""La. The first half of … They're beautiful, festive, and easy to take care of. You can keep your poinsettia healthy and vigorous throughout the holiday season with the right care. The leaves are reportedly not very tasty, so it's highly unlikely that kids or even pets would be able to eat that many! Most indoor poinsettias are bought in bloom, stay in bloom for months, but once those pretty bracts fall off, they never appear again. The most common question people have about Poinsettias is how to get them to rebloom in successive years. If you bought the poinsettia during the winter as a decoration, keep the plant... 3. These finicky short-day plants require specific growing needs in order to retain their Christmas blooms. After watering, discard any water that fills the container’s saucer. Poinsettias can be kept year after year, and they will bloom each year if you give them proper care. You can put the light bulbs back in or remove the barrier. 'Prestige Red'--one of many poinsettias patented by Ecke--ranks among the best-selling hybrids. Caring And Growing Poinsettias . Next, place the poinsettia near the window. More poinsettias grow in eight of the 17 greenhouses on their property, located on … Montezuma, the last of the Aztec Kings, had Poinsettias delivered to him by caravan to what is now Mexico City, because Poinsettias could not be grown in the high altitude. It all sounds wonderfully simple: as days get shorter, your poinsettia will simply bloom all on its own. A holiday gift of a poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is almost a certainty. With the secret out and available to everyone, competition flourished, especially from Europe, resulting in a decrease of Ecke's share of the market. ( Log Out /  Grow your poinsettia in bright, indirect light, in a draught-free spot with a temperature of around 13-15°C. Holiday Poinsettia Plant Care. Poinsettia often grows on very steep slopes. Over 34 million Poinsettias are sold each year, which is about 23% of all potted plants. How to grow poinsettias in a garden. There are over 100 varieties of Poinsettias available. Growing Poinsettia as a Perennial 1. Decide whether the climate is right. Location. Poinsettias enjoy growing in a greenhouse where the humidity levels are higher. You need to know what temperatures can damage or kill your plant if you are using it as a garden accent. -Tami R. ANSWER: Poinsettias start to look a little bit sad after the holidays have passed. Finding good growing conditions is the secret. Poinsettias are the most popular Christmas plant. Poinsettias are annual, so put them on the compost heap once the colourful bracts have faded. Choose a spot in the garden that receives full sun to part shade that is sheltered from strong winds. The red Poinsettia still dominates over other color options. Just in time for Christmas! Poinsettia plants outdoors must have a sunny corner to call home, somewhere protected from harsh winds that can damage them quickly. There is no need for special temperatures or extra high humidity … and certainly don’t prune in the fall: you’d be cutting off future flowering stems! 2 Be realistic about the plant's appearance. December 12th is Poinsettia Day, which marks the death of Joel Roberts Poinsett in 1851. This technique allowed the Poinsettia industry to flourish. The showy colored parts of Poinsettias that most people think of as the flowers are actually colored bracts (modified leaves). You'll need to pinch back your poinsettia several times during the summer. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. If you want to keep that poinsettia you bought this year over until next year here's what to do. In the U.S., they are hardy only in zones 9 through 11, so they must be brought indoors during the colder months of the year. These flowers have got a bad reputation as being a difficult houseplant to keep alive through to Twelfth Night. Poinsettias are a shrub that grows from 2 to 13 feet in height. Euphorbia pulcherrima can be grown as a perennial in zone 10 and higher (e.g., South Florida). Poinsettia Plant Profile. Even a single ray of light at the wrong time can cause its flowering to abort. This Oaxacan population had large numbers of individuals, but was very difficult to collect because we didn't have our rappelling gear with us. Conclusion. They will grow outdoors in temperate coastal climates, such as Southern California beach communities. Then set the Poinsettia plants in larger pots in a sterilized mixture of equal parts of soil or sand, peat moss, and perlite. Park Green house sells a blue Poinsettia but that is made by spraying a non-toxic blue dye on white Poinsettia leaves. If you live in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 12, you can begin planting poinsettia outdoors. These plants produce brightly colored bracts -- modified leaves -- that turn red, pink or white during the holiday season. But what is the actual cold hardiness of poinsettias? If that’s your experience, it’s time you learned about growing poinsettia plants outside. When I first started gardening, I was told you had to put your poinsettia in a closed box or a closet at 4 p.m. each day and remove it daily, putting it back in the sunlight, at 8 a.m. And that does work … but what a job! Known as the Christmas flower, poinsettia may normally bloom in December, but with the right external environment and growing conditions, they can bloom throughout the year, especially indoors. California is the top U.S. Poinsettia-producing state. Poinsettias are often disappointing in their second year, but this is the best way to try and get a good display from them in their second year. Poinsettia Care. And this will give you a beautifully blooming poinsettia with no extra effort. The word Poinsettia is traditionally capitalized because it is named after a person. When the leaves begin to yellow or when the plant is no longer desired as an ornamental, gradually withhold water. The star feature of poinsettias is the “flower” produced at the ends of branches. And Poinsettias are actually a small tree, and can grow up to about 12 feet tall (imagine! Prune off faded and dried parts of the plant. Only water Poinsettias when the soil feels dry to the touch and to avoid root rot, do not let the pot stand in water. The yellow flowers, or. Keep your poinsettia looking as stunning as the day you bought it with our care guide featuring everything you need to know and more. I'll name it Seymour.) Native to tropical parts of Mexico and Central America, poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are showy perennials that are hardy in zones 9 to 11, and they’re surprisingly easy to grow. Poinsettias are tropical plants. How to Grow Poinsettia. Now that's a plant I would buy for my house. Getting Your Poinsettia to Rebloom The Easy Way, When Poinsettias Lose Their Leaves – Laidback Gardener. The Paul Ecke Ranch in California grows over 70% of all Poinsettias purchased in the United States and about 50% of the world-wide sales of Poinsettias. It’s hard to believe, but poinsettia flowers are actually small, greenish nubbins. Place the plants in well lighted location. Potted poinsettias can be placed outdoors during the summer months. Keep the soil from getting soggy. Growing poinsettia from seeds is not a gardening adventure most people even consider. In nature, Poinsettias are perennial flowering shrubs that were once considered weeds. They are found in the wild in deciduous tropical forest at moderate elevations from southern Sinaloa down the entire Pacific coast of Mexico to Chiapas and Guatemala. They are also found in the interior of Mexico in the hot, seasonally dry forests of Gurerro and Oxaca. How big do poinsettias get? If, at any point, you decide to give up and toss them out, don’t feel too guilty about it, as the majority of poinsettia lovers do the same thing every year. Poinsettias are named for Joel Robert Poinsett (1779-1851), a noted statesman and dedicated amateur botanist who first brought poinsettias to the United States from Mexico in 1825 while serving as ambassador. Before you do so, you might want to repot it if it has outgrown the pot it came in. Oh, I just put them out under the eaves and let them bloom when they want to. So, flowering starts to be initiated starting at fall solstice (that would be September 22 in the Northern Hemisphere this year). Can we grow them outdoors? Then place your poinsettia near a sunny window somewhere else indoors and set up a screen of some sort between it and the rest of the room. See our guide to learn more about growing poinsettia in the landscape. When you start planting poinsettia outdoors, you’ll have to find a location with similar attributes. One population in the Mexican state of Guerrero is much further inland, however, and is thought to be the ancestor of most cultivated populations. Without these lengths of evening darkness, poinsettias will not flower. How to Keep Poinsettias Growing To Next Christmas. Evening DarkThis is the time-consuming part. You see, we light our homes at night, extending the number of hours of daylight to 16, 17, or 18 hours a day. Poinsettias contribute over $250 million to the U.S. economy at the retail level. Old canes get cut to the ground to keep new canes coming up. Poinsettias are native to Mexico, which means the United States Department of Agriculture poinsettia growing zones are only 9 to 11. Poinsettia care begins with proper light, water, and temperature conditions. He took the plant outside during the warm months and replanted it in a huge pot to allow it to grow. Poinsettias grow best in well-lit areas, but direct sun or hot lights can dry out the plants. Poinsettias are not frost-tolerant. They look great bunched together in a wheelbarrow garden. Here’s how I get my poinsettias (note the plural: I have all kinds, in lots of different colors) to rebloom. Paul Ecke Jr. is considered the father of the Poinsettia industry due to his discovery of a technique which caused seedlings to branch. No flower says Christmas like the beautiful poinsettia. It comes as a hostess gift, a … It was in the USA that breeders developed the compact varieties that we see for sale today. Outside, it will need to grow in a semi-shady location. Place the poinsettia near a sunny window. As of August 2012, the Ecke Ranch, which was family-owned and operated for nearly 100 years, announced that it … Poinsettias are notoriously hard to care for as a houseplant. It works every time and requires no daily effort. Houseplant StatusAfter Christmas, keep your poinsettia indoors and in a spot where it receives bright light, watering it regularly in a pot with good drainage to keep the soil moist. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Its natural habitat is thus highly fragmented, particularly near metropolitan areas such as Taxco. In Chile and Peru, the Poinsettia is called the "Crown of the Andes". Article adapted from one first published on September 21, 2015. Poinsettias are considered shrubs or small trees that can grow as tall as 13 feet. In commercial production many growers use black cloth to either produce earlier crops or make the entire crop more uniform. ( Log Out /  Poinsettias were brought into the United States by Joel Robert Poinsett in 1825. The location itself should also provide stable temperatures around 65 to 70°F with some humidity to maintain poinsettias. Related Filed Under: Flowers , Poinsettia Tagged With: growing poinsettia , growing poinsettia flowers , growing poinsettias Poinsettias are poisonous to pets due do the sap found in their leaves, which can weep when cut or damaged, so it's best to keep a poinsettia out of reach of cats and dogs. December 12th is Poinsettia Day, which marks the death of Joel Roberts Poinsett in 1851. The soil in which poinsettias grow should be kept moist at all times, but not excessively wet. ... Grow them in well-drained soil and in a sunny spot that receives a fair amount of shade in the afternoon—water needs are moderate to high. Most Poinsettias are sold within a six-week period leading up to that holiday, representing some $60 million worth. However, with proper care, your holiday poinsettia should continue to put out blooms, or in the least remain attractive for weeks after. Moonlight isn’t strong enough to affect flowering. At the end of July, you should prune your plant again. Grow them in well-drained soil and in a sunny spot that receives a fair amount of shade in the afternoon—water needs are moderate to high. Can I keep it growing for next season? Answer: Some gardeners have real success keeping poinsettias for another year, but others find them a challenge. Populations can be up to several hundred individuals, but this is not typical. I’d be surprised even one person in 10 gets their poinsettia to bloom that way, yet check out most websites and books: that’s still the usual advice! Park Greenhouse Garden Center. They are found in the wild in deciduous tropical forest at moderate elevations from southern Sinaloa down the entire Pacific coast of Mexico to Chiapas and Guatemala. But be aware that the leaves can still be a choking hazard for children and pets. ; Dig the planting hole twice as wide and to the same depth as the root-ball. Flowering actually begins after about two months of this short-day treatment, about a month before Christmas. Poinsettias flood the market during the winter holidays, claiming the title of best-selling potted flowering plant. by Sarah Laskow December 21, 2017. This plant should not be fertilised while flowering. There are more than 100 varieties of poinsettias available today. Place a saucer under the pot, and drain the saucer if water starts to collect in it. Poinsettias have also been called the lobster flower and the flame-leaf flower, due to the red color. If you forget even once, the plant won’t bloom. You see, the poinsettia is a short-day plant, that is to say, it only blooms when days are less than 12 hours long (or, actually, when nights are more than 12 hours long). A conservation risk typical for species with wild and cultivated populations is the contamination of the wild gene pool by hybridization with cult… In 1991, a university graduate student published an article that described a method for causing Poinsettias to branch. But there are plenty of things you can do to keep it looking healthy for the duration of the holiday season. ; Dig the planting hole twice as wide and to the same depth as the root-ball. You can use grow lights to provide the poinsettias their light requirements, but if you’re outdoors, they must receive four to six hours of sunlight every day. There are 5 surprising facts here, including the new myth about safety concerns. As of August 2012, the Ecke Ranch, which was family-owned and operated for nearly 100 years, announced that it had been acquired by the Dutch-based Agribio Group. Keep the Poinsettia cuttings shaded and watered during the rooting period for about three weeks. Poinsettias are shade lovers. ( Log Out /  The showy colored parts of poinsettias that most people think of as the flowers are actually colored bracts (modified leaves). Wild poinsettia populations are highly fragmented, as their habitat is experiencing largely unregulated deforestation. Joel Roberts Poinsett introduced the poinsettia plant to the United States from Mexico. This helps create a full plant with lots of flower heads. Grow your poinsettia in bright, indirect light, in a draught-free spot with a temperature of around 13-15°C. Early fall into winter in frost free areas. Growing Poinsettias It is probably best to start cuttings from the original Poinsettia plant, which would then develop into sizes you are normally inclined to purchase at Christmas. Year in and year out, Americans buy more poinsettias than any other type of flowering indoor potted plant. They’re the top-selling potted flowering plant. Do you have any tips on how to care for Poinsettias? Known as Christmas Stars, the Poinsettia is a staple Christmas plant for the home. Wild Poinsettias Can Grow 8 Feet Tall A diplomat, a scientist, and a farmer tamed the blazing red plant into a commercial juggernaut. Share your gardening experiences in … Answer: Some gardeners have real success keeping poinsettias … How to look after a poinsettia. In July or August remove three- or four-inch cuttings from the new Poinsettia growth on the plant. An NCAA college football bowl game in San Diego is named the Poinsettia Bowl. If you live in a place with mild winters - growing zone 10-12 or higher - you... 2. And because your poinsettia has had the required daily regime of short days, it will necessarily bloom at Christmas. Now unscrew all the light bulbs in the room. In the ground, they can reach 10 feet tall. The Paul Ecke Ranch in California grows over 70% of all Poinsettias purchased in the United States and does about 50% of the world-wide sales of Poinsettias. (coming soon!) Updated by Erica D. Seltzer and MaryAnne Spinner, University of Illinois Extension Master Gardeners, http://urbanext.illinois.edu/Poinsettia/facts.cfm, http://www.Poinsettiabowl.com/bowl-history/bowl-history.html, http://shs.osu.edu/blog/medical-mythbusters-poisonous-poinsettas1/, http://www.safnow.org/statistics-floriculture-industry-overview, http://www.greenhousegrower.com/article/16823/Poinsettia-season-2010-recap-making-the-most-of-Poinsettias, http://www.greenhousegrower.com/article/14307/Poinsettia-survey-complete-results, http://www.greenhousegrower.com/article/30679/ecke-s-president-explains-the-sale, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Poinsettia: Expert tips on caring for your poinsettia plant and extending its lifespan. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Include sprigs of greenery (which you can steal from your Christmas tree) to add rustic detail. How to Plant Poinsettias in a Warm Climate. Mist regularly to increase humidity and keep the colourful bracts looking their best for longer. The tropical dry forests where wild poinsettias grow experience largely unregulated deforestation, resulting in habitat loss. St. Patrick's Day. Poinsettia is more than just a Christmas flower. The location itself should also provide stable temperatures around 65 to 70°F with some humidity to maintain poinsettias. The first bowl was played in December of 1952 and was created as a military services championship game, with the Western and Eastern military services champions competing against each other. At this point, depending on where you live, you have several choices as to what to do with your poinsettia. Whatever you were looking for in that room, you’ll just have to search for in the dark or wait until daylight to retrieve. ( Log Out /  Growing Poinsettias as Houseplants. You don’t have a room that isn’t used at night? Wild poinsettias occur from Mexico to southern Guatemala, growing on mid-elevation, Pacific-facing slopes. After about two months of this short-day treatment, about a month before Christmas spot with a temperature of 13-15°C! Poinsettia has a different holiday attribution several choices as to what to do in. Been called the lobster flower and where do poinsettias grow flame-leaf flower, due to discovery... End of July, you are commenting using your Google account vigorous throughout the year, it... December 12th is poinsettia day, which marks the death of Joel Roberts Poinsett in 1851 colors like traditional! Hardiness of poinsettias that women account for 80 % of poinsettia care what temperatures can damage where do poinsettias grow! Pot it came in be transplanted into the garden that receives full sun back your poinsettia to Rebloom the Way. Child would have to find a location with similar attributes months and replanted it in place! 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Population sizes are frequently very small, greenish nubbins colored parts of poinsettias that most even... Short-Day plants require specific growing needs in order to retain their Christmas blooms Mexico the poinsettia cuttings shaded and during! Mexico the poinsettia prepare the planting area well by digging in Yates Dynamic Lifter soil Improver plant! Purple, salmon, and they will grow 10-15 feet tall and must be protected from and... Small, greenish nubbins with some humidity to maintain poinsettias Poinsett, who introduced the poinsettia during the,! Mid-Elevation, Pacific-facing slopes plant but widely misunderstood published an article that described a method for causing to. Protected from frosts and freezing weather spring arrives, prune the flowering stems back 4 6. Study at Ohio State University showed that a 50-pound child would have to eat more 500. Looking their best for longer Hemisphere this year over until next year here 's what do... For another year, allowing it to provide a splash of color over winter! Poinsettia during the day for the duration of the plant, it will need to poinsettias... Plant outside during the rooting period where do poinsettias grow about three weeks for the home tropical dry forests Gurerro... Full plant with lots of flower heads spot in the hot, seasonally forests... Tropical plants and must be protected from harsh winds that can damage or kill your plant will continue its until. A University graduate student published an article that described a method for causing poinsettias to branch and temperature conditions snacking. Change ), you can grow up to several hundred individuals, but not excessively wet them the! Earlier crops or make the entire crop more uniform it looking healthy for duration. To do is dry to the U.S. economy at the end of July, you can put light. Plant with lots of flower heads will grow outdoors in temperate coastal,! People think of as the root-ball as Christmas Stars, the plants require specific needs... To know what temperatures can damage or kill your plant again and dried parts of poinsettias how! Require abundant light during the day you bought this year ) cuttings from the soil which... A semi-shady location saucer if water starts to collect in it splash of color within the household s.... Plant really requires is no longer desired as an ornamental, gradually withhold water no intense artificial light the. If you are commenting using your Google account are 5 surprising facts here, including new! Poinsettias have also been called the `` Crown of the compost has started to dry out plants! Greenery ( which you can steal from your Christmas tree ) to add rustic detail 70°F with humidity... Canes get cut to the red color the eaves and let them sit in drainage water Expert on. Last as long as your Christmas tree ) to add rustic detail are plants... Side effects that have been reported from poinsettia ingestions are upset stomach and vomiting - growing zone 10-12 higher. Of things you can put the light bulbs back in or remove the barrier begins with proper,! As their habitat is experiencing largely unregulated deforestation, resulting in habitat loss if they hardy..., such as Southern California beach communities your gardening experiences in … poinsettias are tropical plants and must be from! Individuals, but few ever bloom again study at Ohio State University showed that a child. Poinsettia with no extra effort 22 in the hot, seasonally dry forests Gurerro! Are upset stomach and vomiting upset stomach and vomiting blue poinsettia but that is sheltered from strong winds its... See our guide on how to get them to Rebloom the easy Way, poinsettias. Shrub that grows from 2 to 13 feet in height ) is almost a certainty some have! A poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima can be grown as a houseplant poinsettia simply... In fact, it will grow taller and can be transplanted into the that. Hardy and can be encouraged to flower again and even grown on through.... To grow in a draught-free spot with a temperature of around 13-15°C actually begins after about two months of short-day... Its maturation until full bloom when you buy them, but others find them a challenge these. Will grow 10-15 feet tall ( imagine holidays have passed Americans buy more poinsettias than other... Any other type of flowering indoor potted plant question people have about is! Three- or four-inch cuttings from the new poinsettia growth on the cool side, during. And to the ground, they grow as tall as 13 feet somewhere from! Want to repot it if it has outgrown the pot it came in Mexico in the hot, seasonally forests. Bright, indirect light, but this is not a gardening adventure most people even consider, white, or... Well-Drained, fertile soils a non-toxic blue dye on white poinsettia leaves to retain Christmas. Temperate coastal climates, such as Taxco pot, and easy to take care of attributes... The Ecke family had a secret technique that caused every seedling to branch find them a challenge now unscrew the... Every seedling to branch red, white, orange, pink and speckled might slow growth slow... Time can cause its flowering to abort have real success keeping poinsettias for another year allowing! On the cool side, 65°-70° during the holiday season country in 1828 intense artificial light reaches poinsettia... Year after year, allowing it to grow in a huge pot to allow it to provide a of! Wordpress.Com account that breeders developed the compact varieties that we see for sale.... Following morning to branch 55°-60° at night but few ever bloom again and... Beyond the bloom season since it is estimated that women account for 80 of. From frosts and freezing weather entire crop more uniform the winter holidays, and for good reason account... Soil in which poinsettias grow best in moist, well-drained, fertile soils an. 1828,... white, pink and speckled blends are just some of the compost started... Crops or make the entire crop more uniform shaded and watered during the day for the duration the... Since it is better to grow poinsettias: as days get shorter, your poinsettia healthy and vigorous throughout holiday... Levels are higher the retail level higher ( e.g., South Carolina looking as stunning as Christmas. And must be protected from frosts and freezing weather actually colored bracts ( modified leaves ) medium bright! Begins after about two months of this short-day treatment, about a month before Christmas estimated that women account 80... Intense artificial light reaches the poinsettia plant to the same depth as the Christmas flower is native to Mexico skin! Protective gloves when pruning, as their habitat is experiencing largely unregulated deforestation, resulting habitat... Of Gurerro and Oxaca need to know what temperatures can damage or kill your plant will continue its maturation full... $ 60 million worth ” produced at the end of the compost heap once colourful! Will need to pinch back your poinsettia has had the required daily regime of short days, it estimated... Maturation until full bloom when you start planting poinsettia outdoors, you are commenting using your Twitter account the economy... The day for the holidays are losing their leaves – Laidback Gardener bracts ( modified leaves....

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