Body image included thoughts on body shape, the wish to be slim, and the feeling of physical well-being after playing sports. Poles were used to propel the skater. Results were discussed without reflecting them back to the target group, which is often necessary to gain a deeper insight to the following questions: (1) What are the aspects underlying the individual response categories? The first fencing masks were designed by French fencing master La Boëssière and infamous duelist Joseph Bologne, chevalier de Saint-Georges in the 18th century. By the end of the 17th century, the changes in men’s fashion dictated by the court of Louis XIV changed the face of fencing as well. Others, however, gladly took advantage of them (S02, S07, and S17). Considerable research has docu-mented the links between girls’ participation in sports activities and positive health and social outcomes in Western settings. In the quantitative study, 47.6% of students stated that they participated in university sports. Students’ Motivation for Sport Activity and Participation in University Sports: A Mixed-Methods Study, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 7-11, 68167 Mannheim, Germany, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Technical University Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Straße 50, 44227 Dortmund, Germany, …because it helps reducing anxiety, stress and worries, …because I need to balance out my everyday life, …because it helps me to prevent weight gain, …because I can maintain my sporty appearance afterwards, ...because it helps me maintaining my contacts, …because sport gives me the possibility to do something in company of others, K. Diehl and J. Hilger, “Nutrition and physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: Further research is warranted,”, S. M. Sawyer, R. A. Afifi, L. H. Bearinger et al., “Adolescence: a foundation for future health,”, J. J. Reilly and J. Kelly, “Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review,”, S. A. In the beginning, sports often involved the preparation for war or training as a hunter, which explains why so many early games involved the throwing of spears, stakes, and rocks, and sparring one-on-one with opponents. Originally called Mintonette, after a demonstration match during which a spectator commented that the game involved a great deal of "volleying," the sport was renamed volleyball. NATIONAL STUDY SHOWS ORGANIZED SPORTS HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON STUDENTS. The first shoes specifically designed for the game, Converse All Stars, were introduced in 1917 and were soon made famous by legendary player Chuck Taylor who became an early brand ambassador in the 1920s. Categories were identified based on the quantitative study. Motivation for physical activity is often measured by asking about its benefits; there is no consistent way of categorizing items, and often an “intrinsic motivation” category has been used [7, 9–11]. One’s personal “body sensation” (S09) seems to be part of the body image as well, which means that participants “feel better” (S30) about themselves after playing sports and if they miss it because there is no time, they do not feel fit and awake (S08). As the immense popularity of collegiate basketball and football grew, interest in rowing waned. However, this bias was not a problem in our pretests. The development of sport for the disabled community. CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background of the Study Many children are covered into sports as children by their parents, to get involved and find a passion or hobby in life. The United States was mentioned as an example of a nation where “sports are an integral part of university life” (S12). Possible improvements according to study participants were a broader range of courses available during semester breaks (S03) and further adapting them to the usual lecture times so that students could play sports immediately after finishing their courses for the day (S07). The items are based on an established battery by Brown et al. The first award went to the Montreal Hockey Club in 1893. The qualitative component identified additional reasons for sport activity that were not addressed by the item battery, which provides critical implications for developing item batteries for future research. We chose this design to gather quantitative information on students’ motivations for sport activity and their utilization of the university sports program as a first step. "footbag") is a modern American sport invented in 1972 by John Stalberger and Mike Marshall of Oregon City, Oregon. Brown, D. Huber, and A. Bergman, “A perceived benefits and barriers scale for strenuous physical activity in college students,”, R. Buonamano, A. Cei, and A. Mussino, “Participation Motivation in Italian Youth Sport,”, J. vital statistics 1 and genea1olica1 records of the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Romans later traded in leather thongs for metal-studded gloves called cestus. (The penalty kick was introduced in 1891.). Museum of the City of New York/Byron Collection / Getty Images, H. Armstrong Roberts/ClassicStock / Getty Images. But even in the face of such obstacles, including a 1286 London edict passed by King Edward I condemning the practice, fencing flourished. [15], we excluded the items on barriers and added items on motivation from other validated instruments [5–8, 10–12] to cover an even broader range of items. Gymnastics began in ancient Greece as a form of exercise for both men and women that combined physical coordination, strength, and dexterity with tumbling and acrobatic skills. The French school of sword fighting focused on strategy and form, and specific rules were adopted to teach it. It was from these innovations that modern fencing evolved. Participants also mentioned that their body metabolism has changed over time, which is why they cannot eat whatever they want now (S07) and need to watch their weight (S18). Yale challenged Harvard to its first intercollegiate boat race in 1852. Potential improvements for USP include program maintenance during the semester break and temporal harmonization with the classes. 2018, Article ID 9524861, 7 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9524861, 1Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 7-11, 68167 Mannheim, Germany, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Technical University Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Straße 50, 44227 Dortmund, Germany. The United States took gold that year, and again in 1904. Our quantitative data revealed 5 factors, which were explained in more detail during our qualitative analysis. It is necessary to study the history of game because it taught the people team spirit ,unity,patriotism ,etc. Since our overall aim was to explore motivation and barriers for physical activity, this shortcoming played a trivial role. In the past, applying a mixed-methods approach has been shown to be useful since the methods and their results inform each other [14]. Adolescence and emerging adulthood is a time of physical, social, psychological, and structural changes, which may influence barriers to and motivations for physical activity [1]. The women’s foil team event debuted at the 1960 Games. For instance, the factor life balance was additionally interpreted as “time for recovery,” which was not addressed by the quantitative items. History of sports should be known to people as they should be aware under what circumstances it developed,by whom and how it was played. For those who are less familiar with this area, an introduction to the definitions and terminology of 'disability' is also provided. By 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards had been built in London, England. When boxing made its Olympic debut at the 1904 Games in St. Louis, the USA was the only country entered, and as a result, took home all the medals. Additional individual characteristics: individual characteristics that were included in the analyses were sex, residence change due to start of studies (yes/no), and number of semesters studied. Another aspect that was mentioned repeatedly was sports’ ability to compensate for the time spent sitting down while studying (S07, S08, and S19). Motivation questions were only answered by the students who reported to be physically active (91.9% of the total sample). This section provides an introduction to some of these issues and a brief history of how this field emerged. All analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, USA). With regard to the quantitative study, the five most critical motives for being physically active were “because it makes me feel good” (completely agree: 73.3%), “because it is healthy” (56.7%), “because it is fun” (55.8%), “to stay fit” (54.1%), and “to achieve balance in daily life” (51.0%). When the lunge was added, the art of fencing was born. Women’s team and individual épée arrived for 1996 Games. Modern sports evolved mainly in the West during the time of the industrial and scientific revolutions, and the demographic surge of population from the countryside to the city. The skates were attached to the skater's shoes with leather straps. Moreover, besides gathering information on general motivators for physical activity, further details on sport programs that are offered to university students are also needed. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. Today, barring penalties, each team has six players on the ice at a time, including the goalie, who guards the net. Mary Bellis covered inventions and inventors for ThoughtCo for 18 years. Men’s gymnastics debuted at the Olympic Games in 1896, and have been included in all Games since 1924. The length and detail of your background also depend on the degree to which you need to demonstrate your understanding of the topic. The rules of modern ice hockey were created by Canadian James Creighton. By: Daniel Bradley . Whilst Physical Education is a part of the process of education that aims to improve human development and performance through physical activity and Sport is about a range of structured physical activities, the two shared close relationship. After-school sports and summer sports camps are run by the Sportverein ISF Sindlingen e.V. While Greece, Rome, and areas of Central America claim to been seminal to the development of the game, soccer as we know it—or football as it’s called in most places other than the United States—came to the fore in England during the mid-19th Century, and it’s the English who can claim credit for codifying the first uniform rules for the sport—which made tripping opponents and touching the ball with the hands are forbidden. The women’s individual saber event was added for the 2004 Games, and women’s team saber followed in 2008. Rowing has been in existence as long as people have traveled by boat, however, the first historic reference to rowing as a sport dates to an Egyptian funerary carving from the 15th century BC. In the Middle Ages, Italian oarsmen zoomed across Venice’s waterways during Carnevale regatta races. Motivation: motivation to be physically active was measured via 24 items (e.g., I do sports because it relaxes me), which were answered using five choices (disagree, tend to disagree, undecided, tend to agree, and agree). As a result, communities began outlawing fencing schools. [4]. You can also find a bunch of other research paper topics within various disciplines and areas of studies. This study obtained ethics approval by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (2013-634N-MA). Tumbling and trampoline exercises are also included in many U.S. competitions. Basic fencing conventions were first organized codified by French fencing master Camille Prévost in the 1880s. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Lack of time was mentioned as the most important barrier for nonparticipation in university sports. Prior to the first question, participants received information on the study aims and data security. Ideally, the study should effectively set forth the history and background information on your thesis problem. All participants provided informed consent before taking part in the study. Regarding motivation, our analyses revealed five main categories, which were further divided into 18 subcategories. A variety of studies have been conducted to identify reasons for participating in physical activity and potential barriers to being physically active in adolescence and young adulthood [4–8]. During the 15th century, guilds of fencing masters came to prominence throughout Europe. The main reasons that prevented students from taking advantage of the program were a lack of time and it not being compatible with their schedules (S07, S08, S10, S11, S14, S16, and S20). Factor analysis of 24 items on reasons for being physically active in German university students (NuPhA Study). A Yearly Overview of Locations for Olympics Since 1896, 5 Outstanding Black Women Tennis Champions, Biography of James Naismith, Inventor of Basketball, 75 Vocabulary Words for Playing and Talking About Sports in Italian, The Individual Sporting Events or Games of the Ancient Olympics, History of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles, Games with Bats & Balls: Cricket, Baseball, and Softball, Sports Miscellany: Wiffleball, Ultimate Frisbee, Hacky Sack, Paintball, and Laser Tag. The history of the game shows a … England's Oxford University Boat Club, one of the oldest established college teams, and its perennial rival, Cambridge, held their first men’s competition, known simply as the University Boat Race, in 1929. As gymnastics evolved, the Greco-Roman events of weight lifting and wrestling were dropped. The print, radio, television, internet, and cinema media have contributed to the explosive popularity of both professional and collegiate sports. 1920s. This study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescent sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention–behaviour relation. Students’ daily lives are characterized by sedentary behavior (e.g., attending university classes); however, physical activity in this age group is important, because future patterns of adult health are established already at this stage of life [2]. While there’s evidence to suggest that ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians played some version of a game that resembled tennis, court tennis as we know it is descended from a game enjoyed by 11th-century French monks called paume (meaning "palm"). The variety of courses available was also seen as an advantage (S10, S11, S14, and S17): “The program offers every kind of activity imaginable, from climbing to kayaking and even field trips” (S14). The university sports program was positively evaluated by most of the students. The awards were later opened to both Canadian and American league teams. Published: 08 July, 2011 . Individual foil for women was introduced at the 1924 Olympic Games. This may contain the general description, and may include the broader description of the topic. Physical activity among students is essential for complimenting sedentary behavior and for individuals’ future health. With the exception of tumbling, which remained a fairly popular form of entertainment, as the Roman Empire declined, the interest in gymnastics, along with several other sports favored by gladiators and soldiers dwindled as well. Social class and physical education in primary schools: a comparative study of physical education in two urban primary schools. 2. Background of the study is the part of any research where in the particular topic is placed. Most were physically active (91.9%); however, 79.8% stated that they would love to be more physically active (women = 81.8%, men = 75.2%, p = .047). While Frisbees date back to 1957, the game of Ultimate Frisbee (or simply Ultimate) is a non-contact team sport that was created in 1968 by a group of students led by Joel Silver, Jonny Hines, and Buzzy Hellring at Columbia High School in Maplewood, New Jersey. By the late 1700s, German Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (the "father of modern gymnastics”) had introduced the sidebar, the horizontal bar, the parallel bars, the balance beam, and jumping events. Factor analysis with oblimin rotation; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.871, Bartlett<0.001; n=602; only students being physically active answered the question on the reasons. The students were recruited via fliers and social networks till theoretical saturation was reached. However, there is a lack of target-group-specific recommendations for the future development of university sports, for instance, in Germany. This is in line with previous research [12, 15, 17–23]. Not all students were taking advantage of the university sports program—some praised the variety of available courses, but still did not attend any of them (S01, S13, S09, and S20). Sports in precolonial sub-Saharan Africa are less well known, but there are examples of canoe races and, of course, wrestling, a sport that seems to have been universal throughout Africa. For a good deal the 19th century, boxing was not considered a legitimate sport in America. Interviews were audiotaped (Olympus DS-2500) and transcribed verbatim. The authors wish to thank the participants of the study. Our study underlines the importance of combining quantitative and qualitative research approaches, since our qualitative analysis identified additional reasons for sport participation that were not addressed by the quantitative instrument. , to January 15, 17–23 ] such a procedure background of the study about sports be easy to lose sight of the.... 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